Below are some useful links and pdf documents.

About Protamines

Protamines: Structure and Function, Protein & Peptide Letters, Volume 18(8), August 2011

The papers presented in this special HOT TOPICS issue provide information and insight into how the protamine proteins evolved and the impact of these changes on chromatin organization, the processing of the protamine P2 precursor and the relationship between incomplete P2 processing and male infertility, the impact of altering the proportion of the two protamines used to package DNA in the sperm cell, the role endocrines play in the histone to protamine transition and chromatin condensation, the forces generated by protamine when it binds to DNA, and the process of protamine removal from DNA when the sperm enters the oocyte. Editorial (pdf)

Sperm Chromatin: Biological and Clinical Applications in Male Infertility and Assisted Reproduction, edited by Armand Zini and Ashok Agarwal, Springer in 2011

This book covers many important aspects of human sperm chromatin structure and function (including the role of protamines), laboratory techniques currently used to evaluate sperm chromatin, what is known about the biological and clinical determinants of sperm chromatin damage, and the relationship between different aspects of sperm chromatin damage and assisted reproductive technology outcomes. Google eBook link


Staining Protocol for Spermatids and Sperm Cells using Anti-protamine Antibodies

Protocol for Immunostaining Fixed and Paraffin Embedded Tissue Sections

Immunostaining of Western Blots using Anti-protamine Antibodies

Transfer of Protamines from Acid-Urea Gels to Immobilin-P (Western Blot)

Hup Antibody References

Papers published in which the Hup antibodies have been used.

Product Descriptions

  1. Hup1N, Hup2B and Hup1M are IgG anti-protamine monoclonal antibodies that have been generated in mice. Hup1N and Hup2B recognize and bind to protamine P1 and P2 molecules, respectively, from many types of mammals. Hup1M is selective for human protamine P1 only. These antibodies are provided as affinity purified reagents dissolved in PBS buffer, pH7.
  2. Native protamines isolated from sperm of various mammalian species
  • Protamine P1 as isolated from sperm (bull, boar, ram)
  • Protamine P1 isolated from sperm and then purified by HPLC (bull and hamster)
  • Protamine P1P2 Mix as isolated from sperm (hamster, stallion, and human)

The native protamines are dissolved in 100 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and are provided at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml.

  1. Synthetic HPLC purified human and mouse protamines P1 and P2. The synthetic protamines are dissolved in 100 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and are provided at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml.
  2. Synthetic peptides containing the protamine P1 and protamine P2 epitopes recognized by the antibodies Hup1N and Hup2B, respectively. The peptides are dissolved in 10 mM 2-mercaptoethanol and are provided at a concentration of 2.0 mg/ml.

Package Inserts

Information about the products included with the shipment.

Protamine Monoclonal Antibodies

Mammalian Protamine P1 and P2

Hup1N and Hup2B Peptide Epitopes